The present-day universe is understood quite well, but beyond about 100 billion years of cosmic time (about 86 billion years in the future), uncertainties in current knowledge mean that we are less sure which path our universe will take. Similar clusters that are nearby contain reddish galaxies in which active star formation ceased long ago. Caldwell, Robert R., M. Hamionkowski, and N. N. Weinberg. = ρ rad . Adams, Fred C. and Greg Laughlin. Einstein later called this “the biggest mistake of my life”. As our capacity to “see” farther and in more detail has grown, our idea of the Cosmos has changed, and that change has been dramatic in recent times (fig. Unlike dark matter, ordinary matter can lose energy by many routes, which means that as it collapses, it can lose the energy which would otherwise hold it apart, and collapse more quickly, and into denser forms. Let us see what can be said about all this in an intelligible way, and with both feet on the ground. [24] Similarly, deuterium fuses extremely easily; any alternative explanation must also explain how conditions existed for deuterium to form, but also left some of that deuterium unfused and not immediately fused again into helium. Matter appears to be very concentrated and hierarchically organized around the gravitational fields of the stars, with their planetary systems, of galaxies, galactic cumuli, and supercumuli (fig. The engineer who built this instrument found that it was detecting unexpected radiation. This change is known as inflation. In December 2012 the first candidate galaxies dating to before reionization were discovered, when UDFy-38135539, EGSY8p7 and GN-z11 galaxies were found to be around 380–550 million years after the Big Bang, 13.4 billion years ago and at a distance of around 32 billion light-years (9.8 billion parsecs).[52][53]. And in one tiny spot, our miniscule Earth, filled with life, dancing in space. In a few thousand million years, the nearby galaxies will have fused, forming a gigantic group of stars linked by gravity, a mega-super galaxy or “mesuga,” enveloped in a dark, empty space. Current particle physics suggests asymmetries under which these conditions would be met, but these asymmetries appear to be too small to account for the observed baryon-antibaryon asymmetry of the universe. This change from charged to neutral particles means that the mean free path photons can travel before capture in effect becomes infinite, so any decoupled photons that have not been captured can travel freely over long distances (see Thomson scattering).

Moreover, the modifications that the gravitational fields of large cosmic structures cause in this radiation depend on how the rate of expansion has changed. As of 2019, the earliest confirmed galaxies date from around 380–400 million years (for example GN-z11), suggesting surprisingly fast gas cloud condensation and stellar birth rates, and observations of the Lyman-alpha forest and other changes to the light from ancient objects allows the timing for reionization, and its eventual end, to be narrowed down. After inflation ended, the universe continued to expand, but at a much slower rate. In fact, this thermal cosmic background radiation has been detected. By all indications, during the Universe’s first few thousand million years, there were frequent collisions among galaxies, gigantic outbreaks of star making inside them, and the generation of black holes of more that a thousand million solar masses. Typically, primordial black hole formation requires density contrasts (regional variations in the universe's density) of around And now a few words about crucial evidence for a “Big Bang” event, the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). It is not at all easy for many reasons, and not only because of the difficulty of simplifying things for non-specialists without leaving any loose ends that we take for granted. It will continue to appear very similar for many billions of years into the future. So a range of models exist that explain why and how it took place—it is not yet clear which explanation is correct. Since primordial black holes didn't form from stellar gravitational collapse, their masses can be far below stellar mass (~2×1033 g). The dough is analogous to space, and the raisins, to clusters of galaxies. These photons continue to interact frequently with charged particles, i.e., electrons, protons and (eventually) nuclei. Life would also have required a heat differential, rather than just uniform background radiation; this could be provided by naturally-occurring geothermal energy. occurs at t = 8.6 × 10 17 sec. The ages of the oldest known chemical elements are also approximately 15 billion years—a number that comes from radioactive dating techniques. In their theory the universe is forever expanding, and matter is created spontaneously to fill the voids. The earliest stages of the universe's existence are estimated as taking place 13.8 billion years ago, with an uncertainty of around 21 million years at the 68% confidence level.[1].

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[22][23][better source needed], During the quark epoch the universe was filled with a dense, hot quark–gluon plasma, containing quarks, leptons and their antiparticles. [24], Therefore, the only stable nuclides created by the end of Big Bang nucleosynthesis are protium (single proton/hydrogen nucleus), deuterium, helium-3, helium-4, and lithium-7. Much has been written about time’s arrow, trying to discover where the evolution of our Universe is headed and, since it had a beginning, finding out what its end will be. Still, it was decisive, because that is when gravity began to assemble the objects that now inhabit the Cosmos. These are apparent exceptions caused by the fact that, near large accumulations of matter, gravitational energy becomes preponderate, leading those giant swarms of stars to turn around each other.

On 17 March 2014, astrophysicists of the BICEP2 collaboration announced the detection of inflationary gravitational waves in the B-modes power spectrum which was interpreted as clear experimental evidence for the theory of inflation. Could this have something to do with the expansion of the Universe? (the Big Where numerous galaxies have formed, galaxy clusters and superclusters will eventually arise. Recombination describes the ionized particles combining to form the first neutral atoms, and decoupling refers to the photons released ("decoupled") as the newly formed atoms settle into more stable energy states. But we will have to wait until the new telescopes on Earth and in space begin producing significant data before we can consider them trustworthy. It would be expected that both baryons, and particles known as antibaryons would have formed in equal numbers. One expects that because gravity exerts a force that opposes expansion, galaxies would tend to move apart more slowly now than they did in the past.

The present-day universe is understood quite well, but beyond about 100 billion years of cosmic time (about 86 billion years in the future), uncertainties in current knowledge mean that we are less sure which path our universe will take. Similar clusters that are nearby contain reddish galaxies in which active star formation ceased long ago. Caldwell, Robert R., M. Hamionkowski, and N. N. Weinberg. = ρ rad . Adams, Fred C. and Greg Laughlin. Einstein later called this “the biggest mistake of my life”. As our capacity to “see” farther and in more detail has grown, our idea of the Cosmos has changed, and that change has been dramatic in recent times (fig. Unlike dark matter, ordinary matter can lose energy by many routes, which means that as it collapses, it can lose the energy which would otherwise hold it apart, and collapse more quickly, and into denser forms. Let us see what can be said about all this in an intelligible way, and with both feet on the ground. [24] Similarly, deuterium fuses extremely easily; any alternative explanation must also explain how conditions existed for deuterium to form, but also left some of that deuterium unfused and not immediately fused again into helium. Matter appears to be very concentrated and hierarchically organized around the gravitational fields of the stars, with their planetary systems, of galaxies, galactic cumuli, and supercumuli (fig. The engineer who built this instrument found that it was detecting unexpected radiation. This change is known as inflation. In December 2012 the first candidate galaxies dating to before reionization were discovered, when UDFy-38135539, EGSY8p7 and GN-z11 galaxies were found to be around 380–550 million years after the Big Bang, 13.4 billion years ago and at a distance of around 32 billion light-years (9.8 billion parsecs).[52][53]. And in one tiny spot, our miniscule Earth, filled with life, dancing in space. In a few thousand million years, the nearby galaxies will have fused, forming a gigantic group of stars linked by gravity, a mega-super galaxy or “mesuga,” enveloped in a dark, empty space. Current particle physics suggests asymmetries under which these conditions would be met, but these asymmetries appear to be too small to account for the observed baryon-antibaryon asymmetry of the universe. This change from charged to neutral particles means that the mean free path photons can travel before capture in effect becomes infinite, so any decoupled photons that have not been captured can travel freely over long distances (see Thomson scattering).

Moreover, the modifications that the gravitational fields of large cosmic structures cause in this radiation depend on how the rate of expansion has changed. As of 2019, the earliest confirmed galaxies date from around 380–400 million years (for example GN-z11), suggesting surprisingly fast gas cloud condensation and stellar birth rates, and observations of the Lyman-alpha forest and other changes to the light from ancient objects allows the timing for reionization, and its eventual end, to be narrowed down. After inflation ended, the universe continued to expand, but at a much slower rate. In fact, this thermal cosmic background radiation has been detected. By all indications, during the Universe’s first few thousand million years, there were frequent collisions among galaxies, gigantic outbreaks of star making inside them, and the generation of black holes of more that a thousand million solar masses. Typically, primordial black hole formation requires density contrasts (regional variations in the universe's density) of around And now a few words about crucial evidence for a “Big Bang” event, the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). It is not at all easy for many reasons, and not only because of the difficulty of simplifying things for non-specialists without leaving any loose ends that we take for granted. It will continue to appear very similar for many billions of years into the future. So a range of models exist that explain why and how it took place—it is not yet clear which explanation is correct. Since primordial black holes didn't form from stellar gravitational collapse, their masses can be far below stellar mass (~2×1033 g). The dough is analogous to space, and the raisins, to clusters of galaxies. These photons continue to interact frequently with charged particles, i.e., electrons, protons and (eventually) nuclei. Life would also have required a heat differential, rather than just uniform background radiation; this could be provided by naturally-occurring geothermal energy. occurs at t = 8.6 × 10 17 sec. The ages of the oldest known chemical elements are also approximately 15 billion years—a number that comes from radioactive dating techniques. In their theory the universe is forever expanding, and matter is created spontaneously to fill the voids. The earliest stages of the universe's existence are estimated as taking place 13.8 billion years ago, with an uncertainty of around 21 million years at the 68% confidence level.[1].

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