This victory marked the fall of the Aztec empire. Hernán Cortés was a Spanish conquistador, or conqueror, best remembered for conquering the Aztec empire in 1521 and claiming Mexico for Spain. "Xicotenga, a ruler in the city Tlaxcala, saw an ally in Cortés, and an opportunity to destroy the Aztec empire.

Spanish conquistadores commanded by Hernán Cortés allied with local tribes to conquer the Aztec capital city of Tenochtitlán. He became fascinated with tales of Christopher Columbus' New World explorations.

One of Cortés' men contracted smallpox from a member of the force from Cuba. He sent one ship to Spain with treasures he had acquired and a letter explaining his rationale for the expedition.

It quickly became a pre-eminent city in the Spanish colonies and many Europeans came to live there. In 1540, he retired to Spain and spent much of his last years seeking recognition and rewards for his achievements. Instead, they left existing rulers in control, as long as they complied with Aztec demands.

She was born the daughter of the Lord of Paynala, on the southeastern border of the Aztec Empire.

One might question the reliability of the translation, but this is the system they used. Cortés defeated the Spanish force, but when he returned to Tenochtitlán he was met with a shock. As a result of his success, King Charles I of Spain appointed Cortés as governor of New Spain.

She remained with them until she was presented to Cortés. Though Cortés enslaved much of the native population, other indigenous groups were fundamental to his success, according to Cosme. He died in Spain in 1547. https://www.history.com/topics/exploration/hernan-cortes. He stayed for two years, and when he returned to Mexico he found himself removed from power. After a three-month siege, Spanish forces under Hernán Cortés capture Tenochtitlán, the capital of the Aztec empire. Aztec priest performing a sacrificial offering of a living human heart to the war god Huitzilopochtli, illustration from a reproduction of the Codex Magliabecchi. On the southeastern coast he founded Veracruz, where he dismissed the authority of Velasquez and declared himself under orders from King Charles I of Spain. In May 1521, Cortés returned to Tenochtitlán, and after a three-month siege the city fell. They had been sent by Velasquez to unseat Cortés. Visit our corporate site. Myles Hudson was an Editorial Intern at Encyclopædia Britannica.

His forces defeated the Aztecs in Battle of Otumba on July 7, 1520, and he regained control of Tenochtitlan by August 13, 1521. During his campaign for the White House in ...read more, Cuban revolutionary Fidel Castro is born in the Oriente province of eastern Cuba. Thank you Cruelty towards his own men Gave defeated men of Panphilo de Narvaez: join Cortes and conquer Tenochtitlan, or die Cortes burned down every single ship they brought to Mesoamerica to prevent mutiny Cruelty towards Natives Rumors spread that the Cholulan tribe was going Cortes returned a few months later with a much larger army. After her arrival, historians are unsure if Cortés continued to acknowledge La Malinche or Martin, said Cosme. By Since the nation of Tlaxcala was engaged in a chronic war with the Aztec Empire, its leaders realized it would be to their advantage to become allies of Cortés, thus providing him with several thousand warriors.

La Malinche became an important figure in Cortés' life and legacy. It's the best mess ever, scientists say. In 1519, Cortés' ships reached the Mexican coast at Yucatan. There, he won over the local Indians and was given a female slave, Malinche—baptized Marina—who became his mistress and later bore him a son. "He arrived in the great Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán in 1519," said Cosme. Upon his return, he found Motecuhzoma’s palace besieged by the Aztecs after Alvarado had massacred many leading Aztec chiefs during a festival. This sparked a revolt throughout the city, and many members of Cortés’s garrison were killed in retaliation. This night was later called the Noche Triste, The Night of Sorrows. Known to the Spanish as La Noche Triste, or “the Night of Sadness,” many soldiers drowned in Lake Texcoco when the vessel carrying them and Aztec treasures hoarded by Cortés sank. All Rights Reserved. When Cortés heard of this, he took a garrison of Spanish and Tlaxcalan soldiers and marched on the Spanish. He convinced Velasquez, the governor of Cuba, to let him lead an expedition to Mexico. He became involved in ...read more, Elvis Presley’s “Hound Dog” (1956) is one of the biggest and most instantly recognizable pop songs in history. While Cortes fought a Spanish force on the coast, his men massacred Aztec priests. The Spanish were forced to flee the city, losing many of their men and much of their gold. In 1513, while leading an expedition in search of gold, he sighted ...read more, The 16th-century Spanish explorer and conquistador Hernando de Soto (c. 1496-1542) arrived in the West Indies as a young man and went on to make a fortune in the Central American slave trade. Having learned of political strife in the Aztec empire, Cortés led his force into the Mexican interior. One of them, Marina, became his interpreter and they had a son, Martín, together. They formed an allegiance, and Cortés was given several thousand warriors to add to his ranks. He fathered several children. Before he could go, however, he died of pleurisy in 1547. In only one century, this civilization grew into the Aztec empire, largely because of its advanced system of agriculture. Receive mail from us on behalf of our trusted partners or sponsors? His mistress, Marina, was a great help in this endeavor and succeeded in convincing Montezuma to cooperate fully. The expedition then proceeded up the Mexican coast, where Cortés founded Veracruz, mainly for the purpose of having himself elected captain general by the colony, thus shaking off the authority of Velázquez and making him responsible only to King Charles V of Spain. Cortés explored the northern part of Mexico and discovered Baja California for Spain in the latter 1530s. Smallpox continued to ravage the indigenous population and cripple their capacity to resist the Spanish. She knew both Maya and Aztec and served as an interpreter. Hearing of the approach of Cortés, with his frightful horses and sophisticated weapons, Montezuma II tried to buy him … On the march to Tenochtitlan, Cortés had already enlisted the enthusiastic help of the Tlaxcalans, both in men and supplies. Once the city had fallen, Cortés began building Mexico City on the ruins. They provided the Europeans with food, supplies and 20 women, including an interpreter called Malintzin (also known as La Malinche or Doña Marina). Tenochtitlán was founded in 1325 A.D. by a wandering tribe of hunters and gatherers on islands in Lake Texcoco, near the present site of Mexico City. Cortés was born in 1485 to Martín Cortés de Monroy and Doña Catalina Pizarro Altamarino, minor nobles in Medellín, Spain. Cortes sailed anyway. © 2020 A&E Television Networks, LLC. © 1996-2020 Historycentral. As a soldier, he served on the 1513 expedition of Vasco Núñez de Balboa, during which he discovered ...read more, Amerigo Vespucci was an Italian-born merchant and explorer who took part in early voyages to the New World on behalf of Spain around the late 15th century.

He returned to Tenochtitlan and laid siege to the city. Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. By that time, the Vikings had established settlements in present-day North America as early as 1,000 A.D. and Christopher ...read more, The explorer Christopher Columbus made four trips across the Atlantic Ocean from Spain: in 1492, 1493, 1498 and 1502. According to Winston A. Reynolds, he did not actually “burn” his ships but scuttled or beached them, thus destroying them. He placed Montezuma under house arrest and forced him into the role of a puppet king. It is obvious Cortés is trying to impress the King and to rationalize his actions as the de facto Governor of New Spain.

In late June, Motecuhzoma was killed; it is still not known by whom. Despite being nomadic people, they still conquered a good portion of land during their Golden period. In 1524, Gov. During the Spaniards’ retreat, they defeated a large Aztec army at Otumba and then rejoined their Tlaxcaltec allies. He had portaged his ships from Tlaxcala in segments, and these proved useful because they enabled him to surround the city from the water and through the causeways. The Aztecs were in the midst of a full rebellion. Updates? Cortes and his men soon took the King hostage, and started looting the gold of the Empire. Cortés used his new allies and united them against the Aztecs, who were resented by local groups for the high tributes they … The effect the Spanish had on the Aztec Empire is a mixed lot. In 1519 Spanish conquistador (explorer-conqueror) Hernán Cortés landed an expeditionary force of some 500 soldiers and 100 sailors at Potonchan, located on the Yucatán Peninsula of what is now Mexico. In the interim, an epidemic of smallpox had broken out in the city and many people died, one of which was the ruler Cuitlahuac, who had been replaced by Cuauhtémoc.
Hearing of the approach of Cortés, with his frightful horses and sophisticated weapons, Montezuma II tried to buy him off, but Cortés would not be dissuaded. Cortés Conquers the Aztecs Cortés managed to escape with some of his men from Tenochtitlan. Mexico had, been discovered by the Spanish just a year prior, and they were eager to settle it.
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After sailing westward, the expedition stopped in Potonchán, near the mouth of the Grijalva River.
When it was captured, the Aztec captial, Tenochitian, was one of the largest and most advanced in the world. These factors working against them, the tribes soon found themselves the subjects of a people arguably as merciless as the Aztecs had been before them. On June 30, under pressure and lacking food, Cortés and his men fought their way out of the capital at heavy cost.

Malintzin knew a number of Native American languages and soon became Cortes' translator. Engraving by W. Holl, 1837. His ally in this fight was the European germs he and his men unwittingly brought with them. Despite the emperor’s hospitality, Cortés resolved to seize Tenochtitlán. The Aztecs were a primitive people who practiced rituals that were inhumane. But Cortés was far from finished. Her Nahuatl name was Malinal. Book illustration by J.H. He set out to rule them. He was the only son of noble, though not wealthy, parents. Angry and without food, on June 30, 1520, Cortés decided to leave the city under the cover of darkness, later to return. In 1511, he joined Diego Velasquez's expedition to conquer Cuba.

Cortez conquered the Aztec Empire on behalf of Spain. Cortés’s army besieged Tenochtitlán for 93 days, and a combination of superior weaponry and a devastating smallpox outbreak enabled the Spanish to conquer the city.

"She became bilingual, speaking Aztec and Mayan languages, which made her very useful to Cortés," said Cosme. Battle of Tenochtitlán, (May 22–August 13, 1521), military engagement between the Aztecs and a coalition of Spanish and indigenous combatants. During the Spanish retreat, Montezuma was killed and much of the plunder the Spanish had taken was lost. He was one of the first children of mixed indigenous and Spanish heritage. This distinction is important because the erroneous belief that he burned his ships placed Cortés among heroic figures such as Caesar and other ancient heroes. Defiant, Cortés set sail for Mexico anyway with 500 men and 11 ships to seek his fortune. Eventually, Cortés' Spanish wife came to Mexico. that he forced them to continue inland. She actually had a pretty high status for both a woman and a native during this time and place among the Spaniards.

This victory marked the fall of the Aztec empire. Hernán Cortés was a Spanish conquistador, or conqueror, best remembered for conquering the Aztec empire in 1521 and claiming Mexico for Spain. "Xicotenga, a ruler in the city Tlaxcala, saw an ally in Cortés, and an opportunity to destroy the Aztec empire.

Spanish conquistadores commanded by Hernán Cortés allied with local tribes to conquer the Aztec capital city of Tenochtitlán. He became fascinated with tales of Christopher Columbus' New World explorations.

One of Cortés' men contracted smallpox from a member of the force from Cuba. He sent one ship to Spain with treasures he had acquired and a letter explaining his rationale for the expedition.

It quickly became a pre-eminent city in the Spanish colonies and many Europeans came to live there. In 1540, he retired to Spain and spent much of his last years seeking recognition and rewards for his achievements. Instead, they left existing rulers in control, as long as they complied with Aztec demands.

She was born the daughter of the Lord of Paynala, on the southeastern border of the Aztec Empire.

One might question the reliability of the translation, but this is the system they used. Cortés defeated the Spanish force, but when he returned to Tenochtitlán he was met with a shock. As a result of his success, King Charles I of Spain appointed Cortés as governor of New Spain.

She remained with them until she was presented to Cortés. Though Cortés enslaved much of the native population, other indigenous groups were fundamental to his success, according to Cosme. He died in Spain in 1547. https://www.history.com/topics/exploration/hernan-cortes. He stayed for two years, and when he returned to Mexico he found himself removed from power. After a three-month siege, Spanish forces under Hernán Cortés capture Tenochtitlán, the capital of the Aztec empire. Aztec priest performing a sacrificial offering of a living human heart to the war god Huitzilopochtli, illustration from a reproduction of the Codex Magliabecchi. On the southeastern coast he founded Veracruz, where he dismissed the authority of Velasquez and declared himself under orders from King Charles I of Spain. In May 1521, Cortés returned to Tenochtitlán, and after a three-month siege the city fell. They had been sent by Velasquez to unseat Cortés. Visit our corporate site. Myles Hudson was an Editorial Intern at Encyclopædia Britannica.

His forces defeated the Aztecs in Battle of Otumba on July 7, 1520, and he regained control of Tenochtitlan by August 13, 1521. During his campaign for the White House in ...read more, Cuban revolutionary Fidel Castro is born in the Oriente province of eastern Cuba. Thank you Cruelty towards his own men Gave defeated men of Panphilo de Narvaez: join Cortes and conquer Tenochtitlan, or die Cortes burned down every single ship they brought to Mesoamerica to prevent mutiny Cruelty towards Natives Rumors spread that the Cholulan tribe was going Cortes returned a few months later with a much larger army. After her arrival, historians are unsure if Cortés continued to acknowledge La Malinche or Martin, said Cosme. By Since the nation of Tlaxcala was engaged in a chronic war with the Aztec Empire, its leaders realized it would be to their advantage to become allies of Cortés, thus providing him with several thousand warriors.

La Malinche became an important figure in Cortés' life and legacy. It's the best mess ever, scientists say. In 1519, Cortés' ships reached the Mexican coast at Yucatan. There, he won over the local Indians and was given a female slave, Malinche—baptized Marina—who became his mistress and later bore him a son. "He arrived in the great Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán in 1519," said Cosme. Upon his return, he found Motecuhzoma’s palace besieged by the Aztecs after Alvarado had massacred many leading Aztec chiefs during a festival. This sparked a revolt throughout the city, and many members of Cortés’s garrison were killed in retaliation. This night was later called the Noche Triste, The Night of Sorrows. Known to the Spanish as La Noche Triste, or “the Night of Sadness,” many soldiers drowned in Lake Texcoco when the vessel carrying them and Aztec treasures hoarded by Cortés sank. All Rights Reserved. When Cortés heard of this, he took a garrison of Spanish and Tlaxcalan soldiers and marched on the Spanish. He convinced Velasquez, the governor of Cuba, to let him lead an expedition to Mexico. He became involved in ...read more, Elvis Presley’s “Hound Dog” (1956) is one of the biggest and most instantly recognizable pop songs in history. While Cortes fought a Spanish force on the coast, his men massacred Aztec priests. The Spanish were forced to flee the city, losing many of their men and much of their gold. In 1513, while leading an expedition in search of gold, he sighted ...read more, The 16th-century Spanish explorer and conquistador Hernando de Soto (c. 1496-1542) arrived in the West Indies as a young man and went on to make a fortune in the Central American slave trade. Having learned of political strife in the Aztec empire, Cortés led his force into the Mexican interior. One of them, Marina, became his interpreter and they had a son, Martín, together. They formed an allegiance, and Cortés was given several thousand warriors to add to his ranks. He fathered several children. Before he could go, however, he died of pleurisy in 1547. In only one century, this civilization grew into the Aztec empire, largely because of its advanced system of agriculture. Receive mail from us on behalf of our trusted partners or sponsors? His mistress, Marina, was a great help in this endeavor and succeeded in convincing Montezuma to cooperate fully. The expedition then proceeded up the Mexican coast, where Cortés founded Veracruz, mainly for the purpose of having himself elected captain general by the colony, thus shaking off the authority of Velázquez and making him responsible only to King Charles V of Spain. Cortés explored the northern part of Mexico and discovered Baja California for Spain in the latter 1530s. Smallpox continued to ravage the indigenous population and cripple their capacity to resist the Spanish. She knew both Maya and Aztec and served as an interpreter. Hearing of the approach of Cortés, with his frightful horses and sophisticated weapons, Montezuma II tried to buy him … On the march to Tenochtitlan, Cortés had already enlisted the enthusiastic help of the Tlaxcalans, both in men and supplies. Once the city had fallen, Cortés began building Mexico City on the ruins. They provided the Europeans with food, supplies and 20 women, including an interpreter called Malintzin (also known as La Malinche or Doña Marina). Tenochtitlán was founded in 1325 A.D. by a wandering tribe of hunters and gatherers on islands in Lake Texcoco, near the present site of Mexico City. Cortés was born in 1485 to Martín Cortés de Monroy and Doña Catalina Pizarro Altamarino, minor nobles in Medellín, Spain. Cortes sailed anyway. © 2020 A&E Television Networks, LLC. © 1996-2020 Historycentral. As a soldier, he served on the 1513 expedition of Vasco Núñez de Balboa, during which he discovered ...read more, Amerigo Vespucci was an Italian-born merchant and explorer who took part in early voyages to the New World on behalf of Spain around the late 15th century.

He returned to Tenochtitlan and laid siege to the city. Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. By that time, the Vikings had established settlements in present-day North America as early as 1,000 A.D. and Christopher ...read more, The explorer Christopher Columbus made four trips across the Atlantic Ocean from Spain: in 1492, 1493, 1498 and 1502. According to Winston A. Reynolds, he did not actually “burn” his ships but scuttled or beached them, thus destroying them. He placed Montezuma under house arrest and forced him into the role of a puppet king. It is obvious Cortés is trying to impress the King and to rationalize his actions as the de facto Governor of New Spain.

In late June, Motecuhzoma was killed; it is still not known by whom. Despite being nomadic people, they still conquered a good portion of land during their Golden period. In 1524, Gov. During the Spaniards’ retreat, they defeated a large Aztec army at Otumba and then rejoined their Tlaxcaltec allies. He had portaged his ships from Tlaxcala in segments, and these proved useful because they enabled him to surround the city from the water and through the causeways. The Aztecs were in the midst of a full rebellion. Updates? Cortes and his men soon took the King hostage, and started looting the gold of the Empire. Cortés used his new allies and united them against the Aztecs, who were resented by local groups for the high tributes they … The effect the Spanish had on the Aztec Empire is a mixed lot. In 1519 Spanish conquistador (explorer-conqueror) Hernán Cortés landed an expeditionary force of some 500 soldiers and 100 sailors at Potonchan, located on the Yucatán Peninsula of what is now Mexico. In the interim, an epidemic of smallpox had broken out in the city and many people died, one of which was the ruler Cuitlahuac, who had been replaced by Cuauhtémoc.
Hearing of the approach of Cortés, with his frightful horses and sophisticated weapons, Montezuma II tried to buy him off, but Cortés would not be dissuaded. Cortés Conquers the Aztecs Cortés managed to escape with some of his men from Tenochtitlan. Mexico had, been discovered by the Spanish just a year prior, and they were eager to settle it.

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