building, a testing program of selected products was developed, and will be implemented on the horizontal capstones on one of. cleaning interventions. Endolithic Microorganisms in the Antarctic Cold Desert. 2011. 97–138. First, the building was completed at the time air pollution abatement had signif-, icantly reduced this problem. A. E. Charola, C. McNamara, and R. J. Koest-, iocolonization of stone is a natural weathering phenomenon, but the rate at, followed by pressure washing (K. Fleming, Smithso-. The large capstone displaying the darkest surface on the left, slopes down and outward, whereas the stone to its right slopes toward it. MN DNR Minerals Education Workshop 2005. Photos by John Bixler, Smithsonian, Cleaning map for the west facade. Algal and Lichen Growth Following Chemical Stone Cleaning. Figure 1 shows two blocks that illustrate textural and color variation of the stone; differences in texture are more pronounced for the block on the right, where denser, strata are interspersed with less dense layers. Although in, principle these products will reduce biocolonization on these sur-, faces, depending on how water is shed from them, these products, might inadvertently enhance colonization on the vertical surfaces, on nanomaterials that are photocatalytically activated, for exam-, of the nanoparticles is critical for their action; therefore, it would, be desirable to test different formulations. lines. A limestone quarry. Buff Kasota limestone, technically a dolomitic limestone, was supplied from the more than 200 ha Vetter Stone quarry, near Mankato, Minnesota (Figure 5). algae, known as green algae, or the unicellular or filamentous prokaryotic cyanobacteria, of endolithic organisms, by Diels (1914), was of algae and cyanobacteria growing inside, white dolomitic rock in the Alps. Photo by Michael Dobbs, Smith. Finally, Lewis and Beverly Smith is gratefully acknowledged, as is the invaluable help provided, augurated in September 2004. algae, mixed with fungi (DePriest and Charola, this volume). Eleven years after the museum’s inauguration and with the building stone weather, that two cleaning interventions have been required. influenced endolithic growth (Cámara et al., 2008). Cardinal, D. J. Installation of zinc sheets to cover top surfaces of capstones is in the process of implementation in two test areas.

2. by NMAI staff, enabled by easy accessibility from the ground. caulked with silicone sealant. Because of the unique fa-, cade structure, water flows down preferred pathways, resulting, in preferential colonization and, ultimately, cific vertical streaks. 176–185. Place some water onto your stone. length.
blueskin moisture barrier, brown polyurethane foam, and shelf brackets at horizontal intervals. Once a community develops, the extracellular polymeric, substances secreted by the microorganisms serve to anchor them to the stone and protect, Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian In, stitution, 4210 Silver Hill Road, Suitland, Mary. could be silver or zinc oxide nanoparticle biocidal formulations. Microscopic Characterization of the Biocolonization on the, NMAI Building. building appear to correlate with areas of water flow over the. 2, A115, Fifth Floor Plan, West Side, 29 March 2001. flowing over the center capstones that are more sloped than those on the sides, in 2010. Charola, A. E., C. McNamara, and R. J. Koestler, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press.

Pores, filled by both silicates and calcite were likely formed as the result, of two successive generations of fluid precipitation, and these. Scytonemin production, found on the upper areas of the building. SYNONYMY IN ZOOLOGY must use the short form (taxon, author, REFERENCES should be in alphabetical order, be cited at least once in main text. allowing any moisture trapped inside the air gap to escape. Bläuer Böhm, C. 2005. Photo by Carol A. Grissom. Discover something completely new in natural stone decor with Vetter Stone. Users are. Slight differences in, the drying curves may reflect variations in texture and porosity, between the two Kasota limestone samples and/or slight differ, ences in environmental conditions since the samples were not, For most inorganic porous materials, water absorption is a, relatively fast mechanism, whereas drying takes a significantly. Carol A. Grissom, modified from Conformed Drawings, National. Bulk Density 154 pcf Absorption ASTM C97 Avg. not be a single solution to all of its staining problems. stone in 2010. the mathematical model of complex water- gas- and oil-saturated reservoir that differ by mineralogical content, type and concentration of clay, pore space structure and correspond to carbonate rocks-reservoir of Volyno-Podilskiy region are considered. (Vetter Stone Co., parapet detail, shop drawing 63, surement of about 5° slope; thus, they shed more water, onto the facade than horizontal capstones elsewhere on, 2. Implications for Cave and Karst Development on Isla de Mona. Disfiguring Bio-. limestone fragments on the bottom coincides closely with the track of the Baffin Land current, in which icebergs originating in areas of limestone outcrop move southward through the bay.
Although there have been successful ap-, plications of this methodology (Fonseca et al., 2010; Quagliarini, et al., 2013a), it may not always be effective because photocata-, lytic materials require a specific quality and quantity of light in, order to be activated (Quagliarini et al., 2013b). In his formal plan for the Institution, Joseph Henry outlined a program that included the, following statement: “It is proposed to publish a series of reports, giving an account of the new discoveries, in science, and of the changes made from year to year in all branches of knowledge.” This theme of basic, research has been adhered to through the years by thousands of titles issued in series publications under the, Smithsonian imprint, commencing with Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge in 1848 and continuing, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, Smithsonian Contributions to History and T, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences, Smithsonian Contributions to Museum Conservation, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, In these series, the Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press (SISP) publishes small papers and full-scale, monographs that report on research and collections of the Institution’s museums and research centers. Babcock was the first to begin quarrying Kasota limestone in and around the city of Kasota. The stone is a long lasting, maintanence free material.

dx .doi .org /10 .1007 /s10811 - 005 - 9018 - 2. 6. 1A and 3E in C. Grissom and N. Little, Mankato Stone Analysis, unpublished report, February 2011) were obtained from stone, stored at the Paul E. Garber facility located near the MCI at the, by Tim Rose (TR in Grissom and Little, unpublished report), from the Department of Mineral Sciences within the Smithso-, nian’s National Museum of Natural History, Stone quarries’ samples provided to the Smithsonian prior to, as well as those for two samples taken from the Philadelphia, Museum of Art built in 1928 from materials quarried at a loca-, tion now owned by Vetter Stone. mesa landscape. UNI 10859 (Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione, 2000). 2. The Structural and Ornamental Stones of Minnesota. The NMAI Kasota limestone was characterized at the Mu-, seum Conservation Institute (MCI) by simple acid attack using a, is based on dissolution of the carbonate fraction of the rock, that, is, dolomite, a calcium magnesium carbonate (CaMg(CO. soluble fraction of the stone containing minerals such as quartz, samples left over from NMAI construction, each with a mass of.

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