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Stevenson Vol. [14]:896[89]:102 Modern Scots also has a third adjective/adverb this-that-yon/yonder (thon/thonder) indicating something at some distance. Each of the numerous languages spoken in Scotland during its recorded linguistic history falls into either the Germanic or Celtic language families. [7] Later influences on the development of Scots were from Romance languages via ecclesiastical and legal Latin, Norman[8] and later Parisian French due to the Auld Alliance; as well as Dutch and Middle Low German influences due to trade and immigration from the Low Countries. [11] Modern Scots is used to describe the language after 1700, when southern Modern English was generally adopted as the literary language. In Ulster (Ireland) it is spoken in the counties of Down, Antrim, Londonderry and Donegal. [32]:11 Frederick Pottle, James Boswell's twentieth-century biographer, described James's view of his father Alexander Boswell's use of Scots[when?] [19][20] The term Lallans, a variant of the Modern Scots word lawlands [ˈlo̜ːlən(d)z, ˈlɑːlənz],[21] is also used, though this is more often taken to mean the Lallans literary form. There are a large number of borrowings from Latin, (muinntir, Didòmhnaich), ancient Greek, especially in the religious domain (eaglais, Bìoball from ἐκκλησία ekklesia and βίβλος biblos), Norse (eilean, sgeir), Hebrew (Sàbaid, Aba), French (seòmar) and Lowland Scots (aidh, bramar). [14]:896[89]:113 Whereas Gaelic was the dominant language in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, the Lowlands of Scotland adopted the language of Scots. "Scots and Scottish English" in Hikey R.(ed. J. K. Annand translated poetry and fiction from German and Medieval Latin into Scots. [citation needed]. Languages in Scotland More than a thousand years ago, the majority of the Scottish population spoke Gaelic. By the 16th century Middle Scots had established orthographic and literary norms largely independent of those developing in England. A Scottish Government study in 2010 found that 85% of around 1000 respondents (being a representative sample of Scotland's adult population) claim to speak Scots to varying degrees. A Study of his Scottish and Period Language, London: Deutsch. Latin is also used to a limited degree in certain official mottos, for example Nemo Me Impune Lacessit, legal terminology (Ultimus haeres and condictio causa data causa non-secuta), and various ceremonial contexts. Following this, some of the city's intellectuals formed the Select Society for Promoting the Reading and Speaking of the English Language in Scotland. The use of Ancient Greek is almost entirely gone in Scotland, but one example would be the motto of St Andrews University, "ΑΙΕΝ ΑΡΙΣΤΕΥΕΙΝ" (AIEN ARISTEUEIN) (Ever to Excel' or 'Ever To Be The Best)[25]. [57], The Scottish government set its first Scots Language Policy in 2015, in which it pledged to support its preservation and encourage respect, recognition and use of Scots. However, the word order Gie's it (Give us it) vs. 'Give it to me' may be preferred. [16] This modern literary dialect, "Scots of the book" or Standard Scots[17] once again gave Scots an orthography of its own, lacking neither "authority nor author". [5] It was certainly spoken there by the early medieval era, and Brittonic-speaking kingdoms such as Strathclyde, Rheged, and Gododdin, part of the Hen Ogledd ("Old North"), emerged in what is now Scotland. [43] A 2010 Scottish Government study of "public attitudes towards the Scots language" found that 64% of respondents (around 1,000 individuals in a representative sample of Scotland's adult population) "don't really think of Scots as a language", also finding "the most frequent speakers are least likely to agree that it is not a language (58%) and those never speaking Scots most likely to do so (72%)".[44]. However, others did scorn Scots, such as Scottish Enlightenment intellectuals David Hume and Adam Smith, who went to great lengths to get rid of every Scotticism from their writings. [89]:78 It is also often used in place of the indefinite article and instead of a possessive pronoun. However, the Norse speaking population were entirely assimilated by the Gaelic speaking population in the Western Isles; to what degree this happened in Caithness is a matter of controversy, although Gaelic was spoken in parts of the county until the 20th century. In the Victorian era popular Scottish newspapers regularly included articles and commentary in the vernacular, often of unprecedented proportions.[71]. [31] There are also large populations of speaker in other parts of the Highlands. 'How to Pronounce Older Scots' in 'Bards and Makars'. [62], The GRO questions, as freely acknowledged by those who set them, were not as detailed and systematic as the University of Aberdeen ones, and only included reared speakers (people raised speaking Scots), not those who had learned the language. It was also once spoken in Annandale and Strathnith. names such as Aberdeen, Tranent and Ochiltree. At one time, Latin and Ancient Greek were commonly taught in Scottish schools (and were required for entrance to the ancient universities until 1919, for Greek, and the 1960s, for Latin[24]), and Scottish Highers are still available in both subjects. Shaped by our rich history and vibrant culture, the ancient Celtic language of Gaelic is still spoken throughout Scotland. The origins of Gaelic can be traced back as far as the 10th Century and is believed to have been brought to Scotland from Ireland. The Complaynt of Scotland was an early printed work in Scots. [18] The old-fashioned Scotch, an English loan,[14]:892 occurs occasionally, especially in Northern Ireland. There are four dialect groupings: Insular Scots – spoken in Orkney and Shetland; Northern Scots – spoken in Caithness, Easter Ross, Moray, Aberdeenshire and Angus; Central Scots – spoken in the Central Lowlands and South West Scotland; and Southern Scots – spoken in the Scottish Borders and Dumfriesshire. pp. [31] Middle Irish was the language of the Scottish court, and the common use of Old English remained largely confined to this area until the thirteenth century. The book contains a five-page glossary of contemporary Scots words and their pronunciations. From The New Testament in Scots (William Laughton Lorimer, 1885–1967), This is the storie o the birth o Jesus Christ. Aa this happent at the wurd spokken bi the Lord throu the Prophet micht be fulfilled: Behaud, the virgin wil bouk an beir a son, an they will caa his name Immanuel – that is, "God wi us". These eighteenth-century activities would lead to the creation of Scottish Standard English. In common with other Indo-European languages, the neologisms which are coined for modern concepts are typically based on Greek or Latin, although written in Gaelic orthography; "television", for instance, becomes telebhisean and "computer" becomes coimpiùtar. The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language Presented to A. J. Aitken, Aberdeen University Press, p. 75. Scottish Gaelic contains a number of apparently P-Celtic loanwords, but as Q-Celtic has a far greater overlap with P-Celtic than with English in terms of vocabulary, it is not always possible to disentangle P- and Q-Celtic words. By the end of the period, Scotland experienced a "Gaelic revival" which created an integrated Scottish national identity. While some languages are spoken by only a few, others are the primary language of entire communities. [14]:894 Alternatively, Scots is sometimes treated as a distinct Germanic language, in the way that Norwegian is closely linked to but distinct from Danish. [14]:896 Thir and thae are the plurals of this and that respectively. Northumbrian Old English had been established in what is now southeastern Scotland as far as the River Forth by the seventh century, as the region was part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. There are some enthusiasts who are engaged in developing and disseminating a modern form called Nynorn ("New Norn"), based upon linguistic analysis of the known records and Norse linguistics in general.[22][23]. Whan he hed waukit frae his sleep, Joseph did as the angel hed bidden him, an tuik his trystit wife hame wi him. The names of the letters and these notes come from Chris Robinson of Scottish Language Dictionaries. It was formerly spoken over a far wider area than today, even in the recent past, as evidenced by placenames. There are over 170 languages spoken in Scotland, and those include Arabic, Bengali, Cantonese, Dutch, Farsi, French, German, Hebrew, Hindi, Italian, Japanese, Kurdish, Makaton, Mandarin, Punjabi, Polish, Spanish, Turkish, Urdu and many more. The growth in prestige of Early Scots in the 14th century, and the complementary decline of French in Scotland, made Scots the prestige language of most of eastern Scotland. They are known collectively as the Insular Celtic languages. Adverbs usually take the same form as the verb root or adjective, especially after verbs. [14]:897 148, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, "News Release – Scotland's Census 2001 – Gaelic Report", "Census 2001 Scotland: Gaelic speakers by council area", "Public Attitudes Towards the Scots Language", https://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/variables-classification/language-used-home, http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/documents/additional_tables/AT_002_2011.xls, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Languages_of_Scotland&oldid=979708813, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.

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